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athletes

The equations used in the analyzer were developed to accurately estimate the body composition of athletes. After taking an impedance measurement, the analyzer first automatically identifies the subject's body type by evaluating the subject's weight-to-height ratio and the measured resistance value, as follows:

 Class Criteria Mesomorph High BMI. Low resistance. Ectomorph Low BMI. Low resistance. Endomorph High BMI. High resistance. Normal Moderate BMI. Moderate resistance.

An equation that has been optimized for the particular body type is then used to estimate lean body weight (or fat-free mass). For most individuals, these sets of equations are sufficient in enabling the analyzer to accurately estimate body composition.

However, for the elite athlete, these body type equations often overestimate body fat. Instead, an equation specifically developed for this population should be used to estimate percent body fat.

Such an equation is built into the analyzer. It is selected not by resistance measurements and weight-to-height ratios, but by exercise hours. Exercise hours are used, since this variable is directly correlated to whether or not an individual is an elite athlete. Specifically, the elite athlete equation is proportionally incorporated based on the number of exercise hours that are input.

Entering 20 hours of exercise maximizes the use of the elite equation. However, this method of using exercise hours to incorporate the elite equation is not foolproof. There are some elite athletes that exercise less than 20 hours. In these cases the practitioner should enter 20 hours of exercise so that the elite athlete equation is selected.

To enter exercise hours, press the DATA key a second time after Gender, Age, Height and Weight are entered. You will then be prompted to enter the number of hours of exercise per week. An hour of exercise is an hour of at least semicontinuous exercise. It is not an hour at the club or gym. After that, proceed as you would otherwise.

The equation activated by the use of exercise hours, based upon
Oppliger (1), is as follows:

FFM (kg) = 0.186 * HEIGHT2 (cm) / R + 0.701 * WEIGHT (kg) + 1.949
and is factored into our standard equations as follows:

 Exercise Hours/Week Male Female 0-2 0% 0% 3 10 3 4 15 7 5 20 10 6 25 13 7 30 17 8 35 20 9 40 23 10 45 27 11 50 30 12 60 33 13 70 37 14 80 40 15 90 43 16 100 47 17 100 50 18 100 53 19 100 57 20+ 100 60

 Reference: 1Oppliger RA, et al. Bioelectrical impedance prediction of fat-free mass for high school wrestlers validated. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1991, 23, S73 (Abstract).