measurments and calculations
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impedance (Z)

The total impedance (Z) is the vector sum of the effects of resistance and reactance on a current in the human body. Technically, the impedance is the ratio of potential (V) to current (I), and is sometimes used in discussions of bioimpedance analysis.


Relationships Between R, X, and Z
Z = sqrt (X2 + R2)
X = Z * sin (phase angle)
R = Z * cos (phase angle)
phase angle = arcsin(X / Z)
phase angle = arctan (X / R)

Example
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