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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1996; 64: 515S-518S.

Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements
in patients with diabetes.

Lawrence A. Leiter and the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group.

Weight gain is an important consequence of the intensive treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Despite this, body composition in this disorder has not been well studied. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been shown to be a reliable, noninvasive method of assessing body composition but little is known about its use in IDDM. Therefore, a regression model estimating fat-free volume mass from bioelectrical impedance measurements obtained with proximal electrode placements was developed in 46 adults with IDDM through use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for reference values of fat- free mass. No effect of blood glucose concentration or prandial state on the impedance characteristics was observed. A regression model was developed incorporating the ratio of height squared to the minimum resistance of four limb-lead combinations (H**2/R), total body weight, and a weight-sex interaction. With this model, BIA correlated closely with DXA (R**2 = 0.982, residual SD = 1.3 kg). The applicability of these equations to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is unknown.
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