bia in practice
pre-test preparation

To ensure best results ask your patients (or subjects) to observe the following pre-test guidelines:

1. No alcohol consumption within 24 hours prior to taking the test.
2. No exercise, caffeine or food within 4 hours prior to taking the test.
3. Drink 2 to 4 glasses of water 2 hours prior to taking the test.

The conductive medium in the body is water. Standardizing pre-test preparation of patients will reduce the influence of temporary dehydration on test results.
test position

Follow these steps to position the patient:

1. Instruct the patient to remove their right shoe and stocking.
2. The patient should lay on their back on a non-conductive surface. This can be an examination table, bench, or mat.
3. Have the patient relax and place their head back.
4. Feet should be 12 to 18 inches apart. The upper-inner thighs should not be touching. If necessary increase the distance between the feet.
5. Hands should be 6 or more inches from the sides. The upper-inner arm should not be touching the torso. If necessary increase the distance between the hands and sides.
placing the sensor pads

Follow these steps to ensure proper sensor pad usage:

1.  Place sensor pads on the patient.

Two pairs of sensor pads are placed on the patient - one on the right wrist and hand and the other on the right foot and ankle.

To position the wrist pad, draw or visualize a line connecting the two prominent wrist bones (heads of radius and ulna). Place the pad midway between the bones on the wrist with one-half above and one-half below the line. The tab faces outwards away from the body.

Place the hand pad with the edge of the pad about one-half inch above the knuckle line toward the middle of the hand. The tab faces outward from the body.

To position the ankle pad, draw or visualize a line over the crest of the ankle and connecting the prominent ankle bones (lateral and medial malleoli). Place the pad on this line at the ankle crest with one-half of the pad below the line and one-half the pad above the line.

Place the foot pad with the edge approximately one inch above the toe line toward the middle of the foot. The tab faces outward from the body.

see photo
  •  Remember: Red clips closest to the heart.
  •  Remember: All measurements should be performed on the RIGHT side of the body.
2.  Properly adhere electrodes to patient's skin.

Proper electrode-to-skin adherence means that at least 75% of the electrode has contact with the patient's skin. For patients with a large amount of body hair, an electrode gel and/or tape may be required to ensure proper contact.
3.  Connect the sensor cable.

Connect the sensor cable set into the back of the analyzer. Fully extend the cable set. Remove any coils.

Connect a pair of cable clips to the hand and foot. The red clips are attached to the pads at the wrist and ankle joints. The black clips are attached to the pads above the knuckles and toes.
4.  Consider alternative patient test positions.

Although the standard protocol calls for testing patients while in the supine position, alternative positions are acceptable. Patients may be tested while in a seated or standing position. Readings of resistance (R) are slightly lower (5 - 10 ohms standing, 20 - 25 ohms sitting) in these positions, due to skeletal compression. These positions will yield slightly higher fat-free mass, body cell mass, and phase angle measurements compared to measurements in the supine position.
conducting a test

Follow these steps to conduct a test:

1. Turn the analyzer on.
2. Press the DATA key.
3. Enter patient data: gender, age, height, and weight.
4. Review sensor pad placement and cable set connections.
5. Press the TEST key. Confirm the patient is lying still. Press the TEST key again. The patient feels nothing, and in a few seconds the test is complete.
6. The analyzer shows the test results on its display.
7. Press the PRINT key and the analyzer prints out test results.

If patient data was entered erroneously you can correct the data, recalculate and print/reprint test results without reconnecting the patient or repeating the test. To correct the patient report, press the DATA key to review and edit the patient data. Press the PHASE key twice (or OHMS key once) and jot down the measured resistance (R) and reactance (X) or refer to resistance (R) and reactance (X) on the printout if available. Press the TEST key, followed by the ENTER key. Enter the measured resistance and reactance. Press TEST or ENTER, and the results will be recalculated. Press PRINT to print/reprint the results.

Bioimpedance testing is clinically proven and safe. Powered by a rechargeable battery pack, analyzers apply a test current of less than one milliampere (800 ľA). This test current is below the patient's sensory level.

The test current (800 ľA at 50 kHz) is below the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation's (AAMI) standard (ES1-1985), for "Safe Current Limits."

However, we recommend that bioimpedance testing not be performed on the following patients without physician supervision:

Persons To Be Tested Only With Physician Supervision

• Pregnant women
• Persons with any implantable electronic device
• Persons with diagnosed heart problems

No historical or clinical evidence has suggested that bioimpedance testing is unsafe for pregnant women or persons with preexisting heart conditions. However, an extra measure of caution is always warranted in these cases and is recommended.

While there is no historical or clinical evidence that pacemakers are affected by bioimpedance testing, pacemaker manufacturers recommend that persons with pacemakers should avoid external electrical currents. Bioimpedance testing will not damage a pacemaker.

Possible Effect of External Electrical Currents On Pacemakers

• The pacemaker may temporarily stop.
• The pacemaker may temporarily revert to a preset rate which is used when the voltage level of the heart is not able to be measured.
• The pacemaker may temporarily interpret an inaccurate voltage level within the heart, causing the pace rate to decrease or increase.
copyright © 1998 - biodynamics corporation